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From Villani, Giovanni, Selfe, Rose E., translator. Villani’s Chronicle being selections from the First Nine Books of the Croniche Fiorentine of Giovanni Villani. London: Archibald Constable & Co. LTD, 1906; pp. 393-413.



HERE begins the Ninth Book. How Henry, count of Luxemburg, was made Emperor.

§ 1. — Henry, count of Luxemburg, reigned four years
1310 A. D.
and seven months and eighteen days from his first coronation to his end. He was wise and just and gracious, valiant and firm in arms, virtuous and catholic; and albeit of low estate according to his lineage, he was great-hearted, feared and redoubted; and if he had lived longer he would have done the greatest things. This man was
Par. xvii.
82, xxx.
v. vi. vii.
elected emperor after the manner aforesaid, and immediately when he had received confirmation from the Pope he caused himself to be crowned king in Germany; and afterwards he pacified all the disputes between the barons of Germany, and purposed earnestly to come to Rome for the imperial crown, and to pacify Italy from the divers discords and wars which were therein, and then to carry out the expedition over seas to recover the Holy Land, if God had granted it to him. Whilst he abode in Germany to pacify the barons, and to provide himself with money and with followers before crossing the mountains, Wenceslas, king of Bohemia, died, and left no male heir, but only two daughters, the one already wife of the duke of Carinthia, and the other, by the counsel of his barons, Henry gave to wife to 394 John, his son, whom he crowned king of Bohemia, and left him in his place in Germany.

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§ 2. — How the Guelf party was expelled from Venice. § 3. — Of the prophecies of M. Arnaldo da Villanuova. § 4. — How there was a conspiracy in Ferrara to make the place rebel against the Church. § 5. — How they of Todi were routed by them of Perugia. § 6. — How the Guelfs were expelled from Spoleto.

1310 A. D.
§ 7. — How the Emperor Henry departed from Germany to go into Italy.

In the said year 1310,
Par. xxx.

Epistola v.
the Emperor came to Lausanne with few followers, awaiting his forces, and the embassies from the cities of Italy, and there abode many months. When the Florentines heard this they took counsel to send him a rich embassage, and likewise the Lucchese, and the Sienese, and the other cities of the Tuscan league; and the ambassadors were actually chosen, and the stuffs for their robes prepared, that they might be honourably arrayed. Yet this journey was abandoned by reason of certain Guelf magnates of Florence, which feared lest under pretence of peace the Emperor might restore the banished Ghibellines to Florence, and make them lords thereof; wherefore suspicion arose, and afterwards indignation, whence followed great peril to all Italy, forasmuch as when the ambassadors from Rome, and they of Pisa and of the other cities were come to Lausanne in Savoy, the Emperor asked why the Florentines were not there. Then answer was made to the lord by the ambassadors of the refugees from Florence, that it was because they were afraid of him. Then said the Emperor: “They have 395 done ill, forasmuch as our desire was to have all the
1310 A. D.
Florentines, and not only a faction, for our faithful subjects, and to make that city our treasure and archive house, and the loftiest of our empire.” And it was known of a surety by folk which were near to him, that up to that time he had purposed with pure intent to maintain them which were ruling Florence in their estate, which intent the refugees greatly dreaded. But henceforth, by reason of this anger, or through evil report of his ambassadors which came to Florence, and of the Ghibellines and Pisans, he gave his mind the other way. Wherefore, in the following August, the Florentines, being alarmed, raised 1,000 citizen cavalry, and began to provide themselves with soldiers and with money, and to make a league with King Robert, and with many cities of Tuscany and of Lombardy, to oppose the coming and the coronation of the Emperor; and the Pisans, to the end that he might cross the Alps, sent him 70,000 golden florins, and promised him as many more when he should come to Pisa; and with this aid he set forth from Lausanne, forasmuch as he was not himself a lord rich in money.

§ 8. — How King Robert came to Florence as he returned from his coronation.

In the said year 1310, on the 30th day of September,
1310 A. D.
King Robert came to Florence on his way back from his coronation at Avignon, where was the Pope’s court; he abode in the house of the Peruzzi dal Parlagio [of the Forum], and the Florentines did him much honour, and held jousts, and gave him large presents of money, and he abode in Florence until the 24th day of October, to reconcile the Guelfs together, which were 396
1310 A. D.
divided into factions among themselves, and to treat of warding off the Emperor. He could do but little in reconciling them; so much had error increased among them, as before has been narrated.

§ 9. — How the Emperor Henry passed into Italy and gained the city of Milan.

1310 A. D.
In the year 1310, at the end of September, the Emperor departed from Lausanne with his followers, and crossed the mountains of M. Cenis, and at the beginning of October he came to Turin in Piedmont: afterwards
Joannes de
v. 26.
he came to the city of Asti, the 10th day of October. By the people of Asti he was peaceably received as lord, and they went out to meet him, with rejoicing and a great procession, and he pacified all the disputes among the people of Asti. In Asti he awaited his followers, and before he departed he had nigh upon 2,000 horse from beyond the mountains. In Asti he abode more than two months, forasmuch as at that time M. Guidetto della Torre was ruler in Milan, a man of great wit and power, which had, between soldiers and citizens, more than 2,000 cavalry, and by his force and tyranny he kept out of Milan the Visconti and their Ghibelline party, and also his associate, the archbishop, with many other Guelfs. This M. Guidetto was in league with the Florentines and with the other Guelfs of Tuscany and of Lombardy, and opposed the coming of the Emperor, and would have succeeded if it had not been that his own associates with their following led the Emperor to make for Milan, by the counsel of the cardinal of Fiesco, the Pope’s legate. M. Guidetto, not being able to provide against everything, consented to his coming, against his will; and thus the Emperor entered into Milan on the 397 vigil of the Feast of the Nativity, and on the Day of the
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Epiphany, the 6th of January, he was crowned in S. Ambrogio by the archbishop of Milan, with the second crown of iron, with great honour, both he and his wife. [And the said crown is in Milan, and is of fine tempered steel as for a sword, made in the form of a wreath of laurel, wherein rich and precious stones were inlaid, after the fashion of the Cæsars which were crowned with laurel in their triumphs and victories; and it is made of steel by way of a figure and similitude, for like as steel and iron surpass all other metals, so the Cæsars, triumphing by the force of the Romans and Italians, which then were all called Romans, surpassed and subdued to the Empire of Rome all the nations of the earth.] And at the said coronation were ambassadors from well-nigh all the cities of Italy save Florence and those of their league. And whilst he abode in Milan he caused all the Milanese to be at peace one with another, and restored M. Maffeo Visconti and his party, and the archbishop and his party, and in general every man who was in banishment. And well-nigh all the cities and lords of Lombardy came to do his bidding, and to give him great quantity of money; and he sent his vicar into all the cities save into Bologna and Padua, which were against him, and were with the league of the Florentines.

§ 10. — How the Florentines enclosed the new circle of the city with moats.

In the said year, on S. Andrew’s Day, the Florentines,
1310 A. D.
through fear of the coming of the Emperor, took counsel to enclose the city with moats from the Porta San Gallo as far as the Porta Santo Ambrogio, which is called La
Cf. Epist.
Croce a Gorgo, and then as far as the river Arno; and 398
1310 A. D.
then from the Porta San Gallo to the Porta dal Prato d’Ognissanti, where the walls were already founded, they were raised eight cubits higher. And this work was done quickly and in short time, which thing was assuredly afterwards the salvation of the city of Florence, as hereafter shall be narrated; inasmuch as theretofore the city had been all exposed and the old walls in great measure pulled down and sold to the neighbouring inhabitants, to enlarge the old city, and to enclose the suburbs and the new additions.

§ 11. — How the della Torre were driven out of Milan.

1310 A. D.
In the said year, on the 11th day of the month of February, M. Guidetto della Torre, seeing himself cast out from the lordship of Milan, and Maffeo Visconti and his other enemies much in favour with the Emperor, thought to cause the city of Milan to rebel against the Emperor, seeing that he had with him but few horse, forasmuch as they were gone away and dispersed throughout the cities of Lombardy; and this would have come to pass, if it had not been that Matteo Visconti very wisely warned the Emperor thereof, and his marshal, and the count of Savoy. For the which thing the city rose in arms and uproar, and there was some fighting. Now there were who said that M. Maffeo Visconti by his wit and sagacity deceived him to the end he might bring him under the Emperor’s suspicion, coming to him secretly, and complaining of the lordship of the Emperor and of the Germans, making as though he would better love the freedom of Milan than such lordship; and saying to him that he would rather have him for lord than the Emperor, and that he and his followers would give him all aid and assistance in driving out the Emperor. To which 399 proposal M. Guidetto gave heed, trusting in his former
1310 A. D.
enemy, through desire of recovering his state and lordship; or perhaps it was for his sins, of which he had many, and was the answer of Maffeo coming true, which he had made to him through the mouth of the jongleur, as we related before. M. Maffeo under the said promise betrayed him, and revealed all to the Emperor and his council; and this we believe of a surety, because of what we heard thereof afterwards from wise Lombards which were then in Milan. And for this cause M. Guidetto della Torre was called upon to defend himself, who did not appear, but departed with his followers from Milan, asserting that he was not guilty of treachery, but that his enemies had charged him therewith to bring him to nought and drive him out of Milan. But the most believe that he was in fault, forasmuch as he was in league with the Florentines and the Bolognese, and with other Guelf cities, and it was said that he was to receive much money therefor from the Florentines and their league. But whatever might have been the cause, the said intrigues made the city of Cremona immediately rebel against the Emperor, on the 20th day of February, and this rebellion and others in Lombardy were of a surety brought about by the zeal and the spending of the Florentines, to give the Emperor so much to do in Lombardy that he would not be able to come into Tuscany. At this time the Ghibellines of Brescia drave out the Guelfs, and this likewise came to pass to those of Parma; for the which thing the Emperor sent his vicar and followers into Brescia, and caused peace to be made, and the Guelfs to return to the city, which a short time afterwards finding themselves strong in the city, and seeing that Cremona had rebelled, and 400
1310 A. D.
being encouraged by the Florentines and the Bolognese with monies and large promises, drave out the Ghibellines from Brescia, and altogether rebelled against the Emperor, and prepared to make war against him.

§ 12. — How there was great scarcity in Florence, and concerning other events.

1310 A. D.
In the said year 1310, from December to the following May, there was the greatest scarcity in Florence, for a bushel of grain cost half a golden florins, and was all mixed with buck-wheat. And the arts and trade had never been worse in Florence than during this time, and the expenses of the commonwealth were very great, and there was much ill-will and fear concerning the coming of the Emperor. At that time, at the end of February, the Donati slew M. Betto Brunelleschi, and a little while after the said Donati and their kinsfolk and friends assembled at San Salvi, and disinterred M. Corso Donati, and made great lamentation, and held a service as if he were only just dead, showing that by the death of M. Betto vengeance had been done, and that he had been the counsellor of M. Corso’s death, wherefore all the city was as it were moved to tumult.

1311 A. D.
§ 13. — How the relics of St. Barnabas came to Florence.

1311 A. D.
§ 14. — How the Emperor besieged Cremona, and his people took Vicenza.

In the said year, the 12th day of the month of April, the Emperor was besieging Cremona with an host, and he sent the bishop of Geneva, his cousin, with 300 horsemen from beyond the mountains, and with the 401 force of M. Cane della Scala of Verona, and suddenly
Par. xvii.
Epistola x.
Quest. de
Acqua et
§ 24.—Cf.
Inf. i. 100-
111. Purg.
xxxiii. 40-
took the city of Vicenza from the Paduans, and they which were of Padua in the fortress, through fear, without defending themselves, abandoned the fortress, the which loss caused great dismay to the Paduans, and to all their allies; for the which thing, a little while after, the Paduans were reconciled to the Emperor, and gave him the lordship of Padua, and 100,000 golden florins in divers payments, and they received his vicar. The said bishop of Geneva went afterwards to Venice, and craved aid for the Emperor of the Venetians. The Venetians did him great honour, and gave him to buy precious stones for his crown 1,000 pounds of Venetian grossi; and in Venice from these monies and with others was made the crown, and the imperial throne, very rich and magnificent, the throne of silver gilt, and the crown with many precious stones.

§ 15. — How the Emperor took the city of Cremona.

In 1311, on the 20th of April, the Emperor being with
1311 A. D.
his army at Cremona, the city being much straitened, forasmuch as they were ill-provided by reason of their sudden rebellion, they surrendered the city to the Emperor’s mercy, through the negotiations of the archbishop of Ravenna; and he received them and pardoned them, and caused the walls and all the fortresses of the city to be destroyed, and laid a heavy fine upon them. And when he had taken Cremona, immediately he went with his army against the city of Brescia on the 14th day of May, and there he found himself with larger forces, and more numerous and better cavaliers than he had ever had, for of a truth there were more than 6,000 good horsemen; 4,000 and more Germans, and 402
1311 A. D.
Frenchmen, and Burgundians, and men of birth; and the rest Italians. For after he had taken Milan and then Cremona, many great lords of Germany and of France came into his service, some for pay, and many for love. And verily if he had abandoned the enterprise of the siege of Brescia, and had come into Tuscany, he would have quietly secured Bologna, Florence, and Lucca and Siena, and afterwards Rome, and the Kingdom of Apulia, and all the lands against him, forasmuch as they were not furnished nor provided, and the minds of the people were much at variance, forasmuch as the said Emperor was held to be the most just and benign sovereign. It pleased God that he should abide at Brescia, the which siege cost him much both in people and in power, by reason of the great destruction both by death and pestilence, as hereafter I shall make mention.

§ 16. — How the Florentines, by reason of the Emperor’s coming, recalled from banishment all the Guelfs.

1311 A. D.
In the said year, on the 26th day of April, the Florentines having heard how Vicenza and Cremona had surrendered to the Emperor, and how he was going to the siege of Brescia, in order to strengthen themselves put forth express decree and ordinance, and recalled from banishment all the Guelf citizens and country people under what sentence soever they had been banished, on their paying a certain small toll; and they made many leagues both in the city and in the country, and with the other Guelf cities of Tuscany.

§ 17. — How the Florentines, with all the Guelf cities of Tuscany, made league together against the Emperor.

1311 A. D.
In the said year 1311, on the 1st day of June, the 403 Florentines, the Bolognese, the Lucchese, the Sienese
1311 A. D.
the Pistoians, and they of Volterra, and all the other Guelf cities of Tuscany held a parliament, and concluded a league together, and a union of knights and swore together to defend one another and oppose the Emperor. And afterwards, on the 26th day of June, the Florentines sent the king’s marshal with 400 Catalan soldiers which were in their pay, for the defence of Bologna, and to oppose the Emperor if he should advance from that quarter; and in like manner the Sienese and Lucchese sent troops, and they abode there many months in Bologna and in Romagna in the service of King Robert.

1311 A. D.
§ 18. — How King Robert caused the Ghibellines of Romagna to be taken by craft. § 19. — How the Pope’s marquis took Fano and Pesaro.

§ 20. — How the Emperor Henry took the city of Brescia by siege.

In the said year 1311, the Emperor being with his
1311 A. D.

army before Brescia, there were many assaults made, wherein much people died both within and without the city, among which was slain in an assault, by an arrow from a large crossbow, M. Waleran of Luxemburg, brother in blood and marshal of the Emperor, and many other barons, good knights; whence came great fear to all the host. And encouraged by this, the Brescians sallied forth ofttimes to attack the host, and in the month of June some of them were routed and discomfited, and forty of them were taken prisoners of the chief of the city, and fully 200 slain, among which prisoners was M. Tebaldo Brusciati, which was leader 404
1311 A. D.
of the people within the city, a man of great valour, which had been a friend of the Emperor, who had restored him to Brescia when the Guelfs had been driven out: wherefore the Emperor caused him to be drawn asunder by four horses as a traitor, and many others he caused to be beheaded, whereby the power of the Brescians was much enfeebled; but for all that they within the city did not abandon the defence of the city. In that siege the air was corrupted by the stench of the horses and the long sojourn of the camp, wherefore there arose much sickness both within and without, and a great part of them from beyond the mountains fell sick, and many great barons died there, and some departed by reason of sickness, and afterwards died thereof on the road. Among the others died there the valiant M. Guy of Namûrs, brother of the count of Flanders, which was leader of the Flemings at the rout of Courtray, a man of great worth and renown; for which cause most part of the host counselled the Emperor that he should depart. He holding the needs within the city to be yet greater, alike from sickness and death, and from lack of victuals, determined not to depart till he should have taken the city. They of Brescia, as food was failing them, by the hand of the cardinal of Fiesco surrendered themselves to the mercy of the Emperor, on the 16th day of September, in the said year. Who, when he had gotten the city, caused all the walls and strongholds to be destroyed, and exacted a fine of 70,000 golden florins. Thus with great difficulty, after much time, he gained the city by reason of their evil estate; and 100 of the best men of the city, both magnates and popolari, he sent into banishment, confining them within bounds in divers places. When he had departed from 405 Brescia, with great loss and hurt, seeing that not a fourth
1311 A. D.
part of his people were left to him, and of these a great part were sick, he held his parliament in Cremona. There, by the influence and encouragement of the Pisans and of the Ghibellines and Whites of Tuscany, he determined to come to Genoa, and there re-establish his state, and in Milan he left as vicar and captain M. Maffeo Visconti; and in Verona, M. Cane della Scala; and in Mantua, M. Passerino de’ Bonaposi; and in Parma, M. Ghiberto da Correggia; and all the other cities of Lombardy in like manner he left under tyrants, not being able to do otherwise, through his evil estate, and from each one he received much money, and invested them with the privileges of the said lordships.

1311 A. D.
§ 21. — How the Florentines and Lucchese strengthened the frontiers by reason of the Emperor’s coming.

§ 22. — How Pope Clement sent legates to crown the Emperor Henry.

In the year of Christ, 1311, Pope Clement, at the
1311 A. D.

Par. xvii.
request of the Emperor, not being able to come in person to Rome to crown him, by reason of the council which had been summoned, sent the bishop of Ostia, Cardinal da Prato, as legate, with power to act as if he had been the Pope in person; and he was with him in Genoa in the month of October; and the said Pope sent as legate into Hungary Cardinal Gentile da Montefiore to crown Carlo Rimberto, son that was of Charles Martel and nephew of King Robert, as king over the realm of Hungary, and to give him the aid and favour of the Church. And this the said cardinal did, and abode long time in Hungary, until the said Carlo had conquered almost all 406
1311 A. D.
the country, and he had crowned him in peace. And on the return of the said cardinal to Italy, he received commandment from the Pope to bring to him across the mountains all the Church treasure which was in Rome and in the other cities pertaining to the Holy See, and this he brought as far as the city of Lucca. Beyond that he could not bring it, neither by land nor by sea, because the coasts of Genoa, both land and sea, were all in commotion of war through the Guelf and Ghibelline parties, by reason of the Emperor’s coming. He left it in Lucca in the sacristy of San Friano, which treasure was afterwards robbed by the Ghibellines, as hereafter we shall make mention.

1311 A. D.
§ 23. — How Pope Clement summoned a council at Vienne in Burgundy, and canonised S. Louis, son of King Charles. § 24. — How the Emperor Henry came into the city of Genoa. § 25. — How an imperial vicar came to Arezzo.

§ 26. — How the ambassadors from the Emperor came to Florence, and were driven thence.

1311 A. D.
In the said year, and month of October, there came to Florence M. Pandolfo Savelli, of Rome, and other clerks as ambassadors from the Emperor. When they were come to Lastra, above Montughi, the priors of Florence sent them word not to enter into Florence, but to depart. The said ambassadors, not being willing to depart, were robbed by Florentine highwaymen, with the secret consent of the priors; and fleeing in peril of their lives, they departed by the way of Mugello to Arezzo, and afterwards from Arezzo summoned all the nobles and lords and the commonwealths of Tuscany to 407 prepare themselves to come to the Emperor’s coronation at Rome.

1311 A. D.
§ 27. — How the Florentines sent their troops to Lunigiana to oppose the passage of the Emperor.

1311 A. D.
§ 28. — How the empress died in Genoa.

In the said year, in the month of November, there died in Genoa, the empress, wife of the Emperor, which was held to be a holy and good woman, and was daughter of the duke of Brabant; and was buried in the Minor Friars with great honour.

§ 29. — How the Emperor put the Florentines under the ban of the Empire.

In the said year and month the Emperor issued a
1311 A. D.
proclamation from Genoa against the Florentines that, if within forty days they did not send him twelve good men with a plenipotentiary and full promise to obey him, he would condemn their goods and persons to be forfeit, wherever found. The commonwealth of Florence did not send any messengers, but all the Florentine merchants which were in Genoa received orders to depart thence, and this they did; and after that, all merchandise which was found in Genoa in the name of the Florentines was seized by the court of the Emperor.

1311 A. D.
§ 30. — Of the scandal which was in Florence among the wool-workers. § 31. — How King Robert sent men to Florence to oppose the Emperor.

§ 32. — How the city of Brescia rebelled against the Emperor.

1311 A. D.
In the said year, in the end of December, the Guelfs of Brescia re-entered the city to cause it to rebel against the Emperor. Thither rode M. Cane della Scala with his forces, and drave them out thence with great loss. And in the said month of December M. Ghiberto da Correggia, which was holding Parma, rebelled against the lordship of the Emperor, as likewise did they of Reggio; and the Florentines and the rest of the league of the Guelfs of Tuscany sent aid to them of man and horse.

§ 33. — How there was great tumult in Florence by reason of the death of M. Pazzino de’ Pazzi.

§ 34. — How the city of Cremona rebelled against the Emperor.

In the said year 1311, on the 10th day of the said month of January, the Cremonese rebelled against the lordship of the Emperor, and drave out his people and his vicar, and this was through the suggestion of the Florentines, which still had their ambassador there to treat of this, promising to the Cremonese much aid in money and in people; but the promise was ill fulfulled to them by the Florentines.

§ 35. — How the marshal of the Emperor came to Pisa, and began war with the Florentines.

In the said year, on the 11th of January, Henry of Namûrs, brother of Count Robert of Flanders, marshal of the Emperor, came by sea to Pisa with but small following, and two days after sallied forth from Pisa with his men, and took station this side Pontadera, and all the goods of the Florentines which were coming from 409 Pisa he caused to be captured and taken back to Pisa;
1311 A. D.
whence the Florentines had great loss. For this cause the Florentines sent foot and horse to Samminiato and the frontier there.

§ 36. — How the Paduans rebelled against the lordship of the Emperor.

In the said year, on the 15th of February, the Paduans, with the help of the Florentines and of the Bolognese, rebelled against the lordship of the Emperor, and drave out his vicar and his followers; and tumultuously slew M. Guglielmo Novello, their fellow-citizen and chief leader of the Ghibelline party in Padua.

§ 37. — How the Emperor Henry came to the city of Pisa. § 38. — How they of Spoleto were defeated by the Perugians.

§ 39. — Of the gathering together made by King Robert and the league of Tuscany at Rome to oppose the coronation of the Emperor Henry.

In the year 1312, in the month of April, when King
1312 A. D.
Robert heard of the preparation which the king of Germany was making in Pisa, to come to Rome to be crowned, he sent forward to Rome, at the request and with the support of the Orsini, M. John, his brother, with 600 Catalan and Apulian horsemen, and they came to Rome the 16th day of April; and he sent to the Florentines and Lucchese and Sienese, and to the other cities of Tuscany which were in league with him, to send their forces there; wherefore there went forth from Florence on the 9th day of May, 1312, a troop of 200 horsemen of the best citizens, and the marshal of King Robert which was in their pay, with 300 Catalan 410
1312 A. D.
horse and 1,000 foot, very fine soldiers; and the royal standard was borne by M. Berto di M. Pazzino dei Pazzi, a valiant and wise young knight, which died at Rome in the service of the king and of the commonwealth of Florence. And from Lucca there went 300 horse and 1,000 foot, and of Sienese 200 horse and 600 foot, and many other cities of Tuscany and of the Roman state sent men thither. Which all were in Rome on the 21st day of May, 1312, to oppose the coronation of the Emperor; and with the force of the said Orsini, of Rome, and of their followers they took the Capitol, and drave out thence by force M. Louis, of Savoy, the senator; and they took the towers and fortresses at the foot of the Capitol, above the market, and fortified Hadrian’s Castle, called S. Angelo, and the church and palaces of S. Peter; and thus they had the lordship and rule over more than half of Rome, and that, too, the most populous; and all the Transtiberine district. The Colonnesi and their following, which took the side of the Emperor, held the Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore, the Coliseum, Santa Maria Ritonda, the Milizie, and Santa Savina; and thus each party was defended by bars and bolts in great strongholds. And as the people of Florence abode there, on S. John Baptist’s Day, their principal feast, they ran the races in Rome for their
Cf. Par.
xvi. 42.
cloth of crimson samite, as they were wont to do on the said day in Florence.

§ 40. — How the Emperor Henry departed from Pisa and came to Rome.

1312 A. D.
In the said year, on the 23rd day of April, the king of Germany departed from Pisa with his people to the number of 2,000 horse and more, and took the way of 411 the Maremma, and then by the country of Siena, and by that of Orvieto, without sojourning,
1312 A. D.
and without any hindrance he came to Viterbo, and had it without opposition, forasmuch as it pertained to the lordship of the Colonnas. And as he passed through the territory of Orvieto, the Filippeschi of Orvieto, with their following of Ghibellines, began a strife within the city against the
Cf. Purg.
vi. 107.
Monaldeschi and the other Guelfs of Orvieto, to give the city to the Emperor. The Guelfs, being strong and well-armed, fought vigorously before the Ghibellines could gain the aid of the Emperor’s troops, and overcame them, and drave them out of the city with many slain and captured. Then the king of Germany abode many days at Viterbo, not being able to gain admittance by the gate of S. Piero of Rome; and the Emilian Bridge over the Tiber being fortified and guarded by the forces of the Orsini, at last he departed from Viterbo, and stayed at Monte Malo; and afterwards by the forces of his
Cf. Par.
followers from without, and those of the Colonnesi and their party within, he assailed the fortresses and strongholds of the Emilian Bridge, and by strength overcame them, and thus he entered into Rome on the 7th day of May, and came to Santa Savina to sojourn.

1312 A. D.
§ 41. — How M. Galeasso Visconti of Milan took the city of Piacenza. § 42. — How the Florentines drave away the Pisans in discomfiture from Cerretello.

§ 43. — How Henry of Luxemburg was crowned Emperor at Rome.

In the said year, whilst the king of the Romans abode
1312 A. D.
long time in Rome, till he might come by force to the church of S. Peter to be crowned, his followers had 412
1312 A. D.
many battles with the opposing forces of King Robert and the Tuscans, and overcame them by force and regained the Capitol, and the fortresses above the market, and the towers of S. Mark. And verily it seems as if he would have been victorious in large measure in the strife, save that on one day, the 26th day of May, when in a great battle, the bishop of Liège, with many barons of Germany, having forced the lines, was traversing the city well-nigh to the bridge of S. Angelo, King Robert’s followers, with the Florentines, departed from the Campo di Fiore by cross-ways, and attacked the enemy in the flank, and pursued and broke them up; and more than 250 horsemen were either slain or taken prisoner, among which the said bishop of Liège was taken; and whilst a knight was bringing him behind him disarmed on his horse to M. John, brother of King Robert, a Catalan, whose brother had been slain in this pursuit, thrust at him in the back with his sword; wherefore, when he came to the castle of S. Angelo, in a short time he died; and this was a heavy loss, forasmuch as he was a lord of great valor and of great authority. By reason of the said loss and discomfiture, King Robert’s followers and their men increased greatly in vigour and audacity, and those of the king of Germany the contrary. When he perceived that these conflicts did not make for his good, and that he was losing his men and his honour, having first sent to the Pope to ask that his cardinals might crown him in whatever church of Rome might please them, he determined to have himself crowned in S. John Lateran; and there was he crowned by the bishop of Ostia, Cardinal da Prato, and by M. Luca dal Fiesco, and M. Arnaldo Guasconi, cardinals, the day of S. Peter in 413 Vincola, the 1st of August, 1312, with great honour from those people which were with him,
1312 A. D.
and from those Romans which were on his side. And the Emperor Henry having been crowned, a few days after he departed to Tivoli to sojourn there, and left Rome barricaded and in evil state, and each party kept its streets and strongholds fortified and guarded. And when the coronation was over, there departed of his barons, the duke of Bavaria and his people, and other lords of Germany, which had served him, so that he remained with but few foreigners.

§ 44. — How the Emperor departed from Rome to go into Tuscany.

Then the Emperor departed from Tivoli, and came
1312 A. D.
with his people to Todi, and was received honourably by the inhabitants, and as their lord, forasmuch as they took his part. The Florentines and the other Tuscans, hearing that the Emperor had departed from Rome and was taking his way towards Tuscany, straightway sent for their troops which were at Rome, to the end they might be stronger against his coming. And when the said troops had returned, the Florentines and the other cities of Tuscany garrisoned their fortresses with horsemen and with soldiers, to resist the coming of the Emperor, fearing greatly his forces, and confining more straitly the Ghibellines and others which were suspected; and the Florentines increased the number of their horsemen to 1,300, and of soldiers they had with the marshal and with others 700, so that they had about 2,000 horsemen; and every other town and city of Tuscany in the league of King Robert and of the Guelf party, had strengthened itself with soldiers for fear of the Emperor.


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