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The History of Chivalry, by G. P. R. James, Esq., Second Edition; Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, London; 1830, pp. xvii-xx.

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A definition, with remarks and evidence — An Inquiry into the origin of Chivalry — Various opinions on the subject — Reasons for doubting the great antiquity of Chivalry properly so called — The state of society which preceded it, and of that which gave it birth — Its origin and early progress 1


Of chivalrous customs — Education — Grades — Services on the reception of a knight — On tournaments — Jousts — Combats at outrance — Passages of arms — The round table — Privileges of Knighthood — Duties of knighhood 16


The progress of Chivalry in Europe — Exploits — That some great enterprise was necessary to give Chivalry an extensive and permanent effect — That enterprise presented itself in the crusades — Pilgrimage to Jerusalem — Haroun al Raschid — Charlemagne — Cruelties of the Turks — Pilgrimages continued — Peter the Hermit — Council of Clermont 39


The effects of the council of Clermont — State of France — Motives of the people for embracing the crusade — Benefits produced — The enthusiasm general — Rapid progress — The first bodies of crusaders begin their march — Gautier sans avoir — His army — Their disasters — Reach Constantinople — Peter the Hermit sets out with an immense multitude — Storms Semlin — Defeated at Nissa — His host dispersed — The remains collected — Joins Gautier — Excesses of the Multitude — The Italians and Germans separate from the French — The Germans exterminated — The French cut to pieces — Conduct of Alexius 60


The Chivalry of Europe takes the field — The leaders — Godfey of Bouillon — Conducts his army towards Constantinople — Hugh the Great — Leads his army through Italy — Embarks for Durazzo — Taken prisoner — Liberated — Robert, Duke of Normandy — Winters in Italy — Arrives at Constantinople — Robert, Count of Flanders — Joins the rest — Boemond of Tarentum — Tancred — Their march — Defeat the Greeks — Boemond does homage — Tancred avoids it — The Count of Toulouse arrives — Refuses to do homage — Robert of Normandy does homage — 77



Germ of after-misfortunes already springing up in the crusade — Siege of Nice — First engagement with the Turks — Siege continued — The lake occupied — Surrender of Nice to the emissaries of Alexius — Discontent — March towards Antioch — The army divides into two bodies — Battle of Dorylocum — dreadful march through Phrygia — Adventures of Baldwin and Tancred — Arrival at Antioch — The city invested 98


The host of the crusade invests Antioch — Description of that city — Difficulties and errors of the crusaders — Improvidence — Famine — Spies — Desertions — Embassy from the Calif of Egypt — Succours from the Genoese and Pisans — Battle — Feats of the Christian knights — Boemond keeps up a communication with the town — The town betrayed to the Christians — Massacres — Arrival of an army from Persia — The Christians besieged in Antioch — Famine — Desertions — Visions — Renewed enthusiasm — Diminished forces of the Christians — Battle of Antioch — The crusaders victorious — Spoils — Disputes with the count of Toulouse — The chiefs determine to repose at Antioch — Ambassadors sent to Antioch — Ambassadors sent to Alexius — Fate of their embassy 126


Pestilence in Antioch — Death of the Bishop of Puy — The chiefs separate — Siege of Marrah — Cannibalism — Disputes between the Count of Toulouse and Boemond — The Count marches towards Jerusalem — Siege of Archas — Godfrey of Bouillon marches — Siege of Ghibel — Treachery of Raimond — Fraud of the holy lance investigated — Ordeal of fire — Decisive conduct of the crusaders towards the deputies of Alexius, and the Calif of Egypt — Conduct of the crusaders towards the Emir of Tripoli — First sight of Jerusalem — Siege and taking of the city — Fanatical massacres 153


Election of a king — Godfrey of Bouillon — Sketch of the history of Jerusalem — Death of the chief crusaders — New bodies of crusaders set out from Europe — Their destruction in Asia Minor — Armed pilgrimages — The northern armaments — The Venetians — The Genoese and Pisans — Anecdotes of the crusaders — Battle of the children at Antioch — The Thafurs — Baldwin’s humanity well repaid — Superstitions — Arms of the crusaders — Of the Turks — Hospitallers — Templars 167


Consequences of the loss of Edessa — The state of France unfavorable to a new crusade — View of the progress of society — Causes and character of the second crusade — St. Bernard — The Emperor of Germany takes the cross and sets out — xix Louis VII. follows — Conduct of the Germans in Greece — Their destruction in Cappadocia — Treachery of Manuel Comnenus — Louis VII. arrives at Constantinople — Passes into Asia — Defeats the Turks on the Meander — His army cut to pieces — Proceeds by sea to Antioch — Fate of his remaining troops — Intrigues at Antioch — Louis goes on to Jerusalem — Siege of Damascus — Disgraceful failure — Conrad returns to Europe — Conduct of Suger, Abbot of St. Denis — Termination of the Second Crusade 191


Progress of society — The rise of poetry in modern Europe — Troubadours — Trouveres — Various poetical compositions — Effect of poetry upon Chivalry — Effect of the crusades on society — State of Palestine after the second crusade — Cession of Edessa to the Emperor Manuel Comnenus — Edessa completely subjected by the Turks — Ascalon taken by the Christians — State of Egypt under the last Califs of the Fatimite race — The Latins and the Atabecks both design the conquest of Egypt — Struggles for that country — Rise of Saladin — Disputes among the Latins concerning the succession of the crown — Guy of Lusignan crowned — Saladin invades Palestine — Battle of Tiberias — Fall of Jerusalem — Conquest of all Palestine — Some inquiry into the causes of the Latin overthrow 214


The news of the fate of Palestine reaches Europe — The Archbishop of Tyre comes to seek for aid — Assistance granted by William the Good, of Sicily — Death of Urban, from grief at the loss of Jerusalem — Gregory VIII. promotes a crusade — Expedition of Frederic, Emperor of Germany — His successes — His death — State of Europe — Crusade promoted by the Troubadours — Philip Augustus and Henry II. take the cross — Laws enacted — Saladin’s tenth — War renewed — Death of Henry II. — Accession of Richard Cœur de Lion — The crusade — Philip’s march — Richard’s march — Affairs of Sicily — Quarrels between the monarchs — Philip goes to Acre — Richard subdues Cyprus — Arrives at Acre — Siege and taking of Acre — Fresh disputes — Philip Augustus returns to Europe — Richard marches on — Battle of Azotus — Heroism of Richard — Unsteady councils — The enterprise abandoned 233


Death of Saladin — Disunion amongst his successors — Celestine III. preaches a new crusade — Henry of Germany takes the cross — Abandons his purpose — Crusaders proceed without him — Saif Eddin takes the field, and captures Jaffa — The crusaders are reinforced — Defeat Saif Eddin — Lay siege to Thoron — Sized with panic, and retreat — Disperse — Death of Henry of Champagne, King of Jerusalem — His widow marries Almeric, King of Cyprus — Truce — Death of Almeric; and Isabella Mary, heiress of Jerusalem, wedded to John of Brienne — xx Affairs of Europe — Innocent III. and Foulque, of Neuilly, promote a crusade — The barons of France take the cross — Proceed to Venice — Their difficulties — Turn to the siege of Zara — A change of purpose — Proceed to Constantinople — Siege and taking of that city — Subsequent proceedings — A revolution in Constantinople, Alexius deposed by Murzuphlis — Second siege and capture of the Greek capital — Flight of Murzuphlis — Plunder and outrage — Baldwin Count of Flanders elected emperor 262


Divisions amongst the Moslems — Amongst the Christians — Crusade of children — Innocent III. declares he will lead a new crusade to Syria — The King of Hungary takes the cross — Arrives in Syria — Successes of the pilgrims — Abandon the siege of Mount Thabor — The King of Hungary returns to Europe — The Duke of Austria continues the war — Siege of Damietta — Reinforcements arrive under a legate — Famine in Damietta — The Moslems offer to yield Palestine — The legate’s pride — He refuses — Taking of Damietta — The army advances towards Cairo — Overflowing of the Nile — The army ruined — The legate sues for peace — Generous conduct of the Sultaun — Marriage of the heiress of Jerusalem with Frederic, Emperor of Germany — His disputes with the Pope — His treaties with the Saracens — He recovers Jerusalem — Quits the Holy Land — Disputes in Palestine — The Templars defeated and slaughtered — Gregory IX. — Crusade of the King of Navarre ineffectual — Crusade of Richard, Earl of Cornwall — Jerusalem recovered — The Corasmins — Their barbarity — They take Jerusalem — Defeat the Christians with terrible slaughter — Are exterminated by the Syrians — Crusade of St. Louis — His character — Arrives in the Holy Land — Takes Damietta — Battle of Massoura — Pestilence in the army — The King taken — Ransomed — Returns to Europe — Second crusade of St. Louis — Takes Carthage — His death — Crusade of Prince Edward — He defeats the Saracens — Wounded by an assassin — Returns to Europe — Successes of the Turks — Last siege and fall of Acre — Palestine lost 285


Fate of the orders of the Temple and St. John — The Templars abandon all hopes of recovering Jerusalem — Mingle in Euopean politics — Offend Philip the Fair — Are persecuted — Charges against them — The order destroyed — The knights of St. John pursue the purpose of defending Christendom — Settle in Rhodes — Siege of Rhodes — Gallant defence — The island taken — The knights remove to Malta — Siege of Malta — La Valette — Defence of St. Elmo — Gallantry of the garrison — The whole Turkish army attempt to storm the castle — The attack repelled — Arrival of succour — The siege raised — Conclusion 312



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