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From Chronicles of England, France and Spain and the Surrounding Countries, by Sir John Froissart, Translated from the French Editions with Variations and Additions from Many Celebrated MSS, by Thomas Johnes, Esq; London: William Smith, 1848. pp. 26-33.



AFTER the Scots had in the night quitted the mountain, where the young king Edward and the nobles of England has held them besieged, as you have before heard, they marched twenty-two leagues from that desert country without halting, and crossed the Tyne pretty near to Carlisle, where by the orders of the chiefs all disbanded, and went to their own homes. Shortly afterwards some of the lords and barons so earnestly solicited the king of England, that a truce was agreed on between the two kings for three years.

During this truce, it happened that king Robert of Scotland, who had been a very valiant knight, waxed old, and was attacked with so severe an illness*, that he saw his end was approaching; he therefore summoned together all the chiefs and barons, in whom he most 27 confided, and, after having told them, that he should never get the better of this sickness, he commanded them, upon their honour and loyalty, to keep and preserve faithfully and entire the kingdom for his son David, and obey him and crown him king when he was of a proper age, and to marry him with a lady suitable to his station.

He after that called to him the gallant lord James Douglas, and said to him, in presence of the others, “My dear friend lord James Douglas, you know that I have had much to do, and have suffered many troubles, during the time I have lived, to support the rights of my crown: at the time that I was most occupied, I made a vow, the nonaccomplishment of which gives me much uneasiness — I vowed, that, if I could finish my wars in such a manner, that I might have quiet to govern peaceably, I would go and make war against the enemies of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the adversaries of the Christian faith. To this point my heart has always leaned; but our Lord was not willing, and gave me so much to do in my lifetime, and this last expedition has lasted so long, followed by this heavy sickness, that, since my body cannot accomplish what my heart wishes, I will send my heart in the stead of my body to fulfil my vow. And, as I do not know any one knight so gallant or enterprising, or better formed to complete my intentions than yourself, I beg and entreat of you, dear and special friend, as earnestly as I can, that you would have the goodness to undertake this expedition for the love of me, and to acquit my soul to our Lord and Saviour; for I have that opinion of your nobleness and loyalty, that, if you undertake it, it cannot fail of success — and I shall die more contented; but it must be executed as follows: —

“I will, that as soon as I shall be dead, you take my heart from my body, and have it embalmed; you will also take as much money from my treasury as will appear to you sufficient to perform your journey, as well as for all those whom you may choose to take with you in your train; you will then deposit your charge at the Holy Sepulchre of our Lord, where he was buried, since my body cannot go there. You will not be sparing of expense — and provide yourself with such company and such things as may be suitable to your rank — and wherever you pass, you will let it be known, that you bear the heart of king Robert of Scotland, which you are carrying beyond seas by his command, since his body cannot go thither.”

All those present began bewailing bitterly; and when the lord James could speak, he said,

“Gallant and noble king, I return you a hundred thousand thanks for the high honour you do me, and for the valuable and dear treasure with which you intrust me; and I will most willingly do all that you command me with the utmost loyalty in my power; never doubt it, however I may feel myself unworthy of such high distinction.”

The king replied, “Gallant knight, I thank you — you promise it me then?”

“Certainly, sir, most willingly,” answered the knight. He then gave his promise upon his knighthood.

The king said, “Thanks be to God! for I shall now die in peace, since I know that the most valiant and accomplished knight of my kingdom will perform that for me which I am unable to do for myself.”

Soon afterwards the valiant Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, departed this life, on the 7th of November, 1337. His heart was embalmed, and his body buried in the monastery of Dunfermline. Shortly after died also the noble earl of Moray, who was one of the most gallant and powerful princes in Scotland: he bore for arms, argent, three pillows gules.


Early in the spring, the lord James Douglas, having made provision of every thing that was proper for his expedition, embarked at the port of Montrose, and sailed directly for Sluys in Flanders, in order to learn if any one were going beyond the sea to Jerusalem, that he might join companies. He remained there twelve days, and would not set his foot on shore, but staid the whole time on board, where he kept a magnificent table, with music of trumpets and drums, as if he had been the king of Scotland. His company consisted of one knight banneret, and seven others of the most valiant knights of Scotland, without counting the rest of his household. His plate was of gold and silver, consisting of pots, basins, porringers, cups, bottles, barrels, and other such things. He had likewise, twenty-six young and gallant esquires of the best families in Scotland to wait on him; and all those who came to visit him were handsomely served with two sorts of wine and two sorts of spices — I mean those of a certain rank. At last, after staying at Sluys twelve days, he heard that Alphonso, king of Spain, was waging war against the Saracen king of Granada. He considered, that if he should go thither he should employ his time and journey according to the late king’s wishes; and when he should have finished there he would proceed further to complete that with which he was charged. He made sail therefore towards Spain, and landed first at Valentia; thence he went straight to the king of Spain, who was with his army on the frontiers, very near the Saracen king of Granada.

It happened, soon after the arrival of the lord James Douglas, that the king of Spain issued forth into the fields, to make his approaches nearer the enemy; the king of Granada did the same; and each king could easily distinguish the other’s banners, and they both began to set their armies in array. The lord James placed himself and his company on one side, to make better work, and a more powerful effort. When he perceived that the battalions on each side were fully arranged, and that of the king of Spain in motion, he imagined they were about to begin the onset; and as he always wished to be among the first rather than last on such occasions, he and all his company stuck their spurs into their horses, until they were in the midst of the king of Granada’s battalion, and made a furious attack on the Saracen. He thought that he should be supported by the Spaniards; but in this he was mistaken, for not one that day followed his example. The gallant knight and all his companions were surrounded by the enemy: they performed prodigies of valor; but they were of no avail, as they were all killed. It was a great misfortune that they were not assisted by the Spaniards.

About this time, many of the nobles and others, desirous of a settled peace between the Scots and English, proposed a marriage between the young king of Scotland and the sister of the king of England. This marriage was concluded, and solemnized at Berwick, with great feasts and rejoicings on both sides.


*  La grosse maladie — leprosy.

  Thomas Randolph, first earl of Moray, was very eminent in the reign of Robert Bruce, who granted him the earldom of Moray, together with the seigniory of the Isle of Man, as a fief, and great estates in Scotland, about the year 1315. He was appointed by the parliament in 1315 governor of Scotland, in the probable event of the minority of the successor, and entered on that office on the death of Robert.

Lord Hailes says, in his Annals of Scotland, anno 1332: “Randolph, in consequence of the English preparations, assembled an army, and advanced to Colbrans-path, on the frontier of East Lothian; but having received intelligence of the naval armament, he marched northwards, to provide for the defence of the interior parts of the kingdom. Amidst the excruciating pains of a confirmed stone, he ceased not to discharge the duties of his office with activity and vigilance. He expired on the march (20th July). A man he was to be remembered while integrity, prudence, and valour, are held in esteem among men.”

I have quoted the above as a more probable reason for his death than the report of some of the chroniclers, who have said he was poisoned by a monk, with the knowledge of Edward III. Lord Hailes has added a note to this passage, vol. ii. p. 146, which completely disproves it.

  Mariana says, lib. xv. cap. 21, that the king of Arragon, although joined in alliance with the king of Castile against the Moors, did not bring his troops to the field.

Lord Hailes’ Annals of Scotland, anno 1330: — “The detached troops fought with equal advantage, and the Moorish cavalry fled. Douglas with his companions eagerly pursued the Saracens. Taking the casket from his neck, which contained the heart of Bruce, he threw it before him and cried, ’Now pass thou onward as thou wast wont, and Douglas will follow thee, or die!’ The fugitives rallied — surrounded and overwhelmed by superior numbers, Douglas fell, while attempting to rescue sir William St. Clare, of Roslin, who shared his fate. Robert and Walter Logan, both of them knights, were slain with Douglas. His friend, sir William Keith, having had his arm broke, was detained from the battle. His few surviving companions found his body in the field, together with the casket, and reverently conveyed them to Scotland. The remains of Douglas were interred in the sepulchre of his fathers, in the church of Douglas, and the heart of Bruce was deposited at Melrose.

“His natural son, Archibald Douglas, erected a marble monument to his memory; but his countrymen have more effectually perpetuated his fame, by bestowing on him the name of ’the good sir James Douglas.’ Fordun reports, that Douglas was thirteen times defeated in battle, and fifty-seven times victorious.

“Perhaps my readers will not dislike to see the portrait of Douglas, drawn by Barbour, p. 13.

“In visage was he some deal gray,
  And had black hair, as I heard say;
  But then, of limbs he was well made,
  With bones great, and shoulders braid;
  His body well made and lenzie,
  As they that saw him said to me.
  When he was blyth, he was lovely,
  And meek, and sweet in company;
  But who in battle might him see,
  Another countenance had he;
  And in his speech he lispt some deal,
  But that set him right wonder well.”




CHARLES, king of France, son of Philip the Fair, had been thrice married, and yet died without heirs male. The first of his wives, a daughter of the count of Artois, was one of the most beautiful women in the world; however, she kept her marriage vow so ill, and behaved so badly, that she was long confined in prison at Chateau Gaillard, before her husband was king. When the kingdom of France devolved upon him, he was crowned by the twelve peers of France and all the barons, who were not willing that such a kingdom should be deprived of male heirs; they therefore strongly recommended his marrying again, with which he complied, and took to wife the daughter of the emperor Henry of Luxemburgh, sister to the gallant king of Bohemia. His first marriage, with the lady in prison, was dissolved by the pope of that day. By this second wife, the lady of Luxemburgh, who was modest and prudent, the king had a son, who died very young, and the mother soon afterward, at Issoudun, in Berry. The cause of their deaths was much suspected, and many were inculpated in it, and privily punished.

The king was afterwards married a third time, to the daughter of his uncle, Lewis, count of Evreux and sister to the king of Navarre. She was called queen Joan. She was soon afterward with child, and at the same time the king fell sick on his death-bed. When he perceived that he could not recover, he ordered, that, if the child should be a son, Philip of Valois, his cousin, should be his guardian, and regent of the whole kingdom, until such time as his son should be of age to reign; that, if it should happen to be a girl, then the twelve peers and great barons were to assemble to take counsel together, and to give the kingdom to him who appeared to them to have the clearest right. About Easter 1326, the king died; and it was not long before the queen was brought to bed of a beautiful girl.

Philip de Valois, king of France, protrait

PHILIP DE VALOIS, KING OF FRANCE. — From an ancient picture, engraved in Mezernay’s Hist. of France.

The twelve peers and barons of France assembled at Paris without delay, and gave the kingdom, with one consent, to Philip of Valois. They passed by the queen of England, and the king her son, although she was cousin-german to the king last deceased; for they said, that the kingdom of France was of such great nobleness, that it ought not to fall by succession to a female. They crowned the lord Philip king of France, at Rheims, the Trinity Sunday following. Immediately he summoned his barons and men at arms, and went with a powerful army to Cassel, to make war upon the Flemings, especially those of Bruges, 30 Ypres, and of the Franc*, who would not willingly obey their lord, the count of Flanders, but rebelled against him, and had driven him out of the country, so that he could reside no where but at Ghent, and there miserable enough.

King Philip discomfited full twelve thousand Flemings, who had for their captain one Colin Dannequin, a bold and courageous man. The above-mentioned Flemings had put the garrison of Cassel under the command of the aforesaid towns, and at their charges, to guard the frontiers at that place. I will inform you how the Flemings were defeated, and all through their own bad conduct.


*  “Le Franc, Franconatus, Terra Franca. It is part of French Flanders, and was yielded to the French by the peace of the Pyrenees; it comprehends the bailiwicks of Bourbourg, Bergue, St. Winox, and Furnes, and beside the capital towns of these bailiwicks, those of Dunkirk and Gravelines.” — Dictionnaire Géographique, par Baudran.

  Lord Berners here and in the previous chapter says sixteen thousand; Dr. Sauvage has twelve thousand in one place and sixteen thousand in another.



THOSE that were in the garrison at Cassel set out one day, about vespers, with a design to defeat the king and all his army. They marched very quietly without noise in three divisions; the first of which advanced straight to the tents of the king, and was near surprising him, as he was seated at supper, as well as his whole household. The second went to the tents of the king of Bohemia, and almost found him in the same situation. The third division attacked the quarters of the count of Hainault, and nearly surprised him: they pressed him so closely, that he and his people had scarce time to arm themselves; and the lord of Beaumont, his brother, and his company, were in a similar situation. All the three divisions came so quickly up to the tents, that neither the lords nor soldiers had time to assemble or properly arm themselves, and they would all have been slain, if it had not been, as it were, a miracle of God; but, by his grace, each of these lords defeated their enemies, and so completely, that, in the space of an hour, out of twelve thousand Flemings not one escaped. Their captain was also killed. Nor did any of these lords receive any intelligence of the other until the business was finished. Of all the Flemings not one turned his back; but they were all slaughtered on the spot and lay in three large heaps, one upon the other. This battle happened in the year of grace 1328, on St. Bartholomew’s day.

The French came then to Cassel, and placed there the banners of France, the town having surrendered to the king. Afterward Poperingue, and then Ypres, and all the castlewick of Bergues followed, and received the count Lewis their lord, and swore fidelity and loyalty to him for the time to come. The king soon after set out with his troops towards Paris, where, and in the neighbourhood, he staid some time. He was much praised and honoured for this enterprise, and for the service he had rendered to the count Lewis, his brother. He lived in great prosperity and increased the royal power. No king of France, it was said, had ever kept so royal a state as king Philip.



THE young king Edward of England was governed for a long time, as you have before seen by the counsels of his mother, the earl of Kent his uncle, and sir Roger Mortimer; at last a jealousy arose between the earl of Kent and sir Roger, insomuch that sir Roger, with the consent of the queen mother, gave the king to understand that the earl of Kent would shorten his life by poison, if he was not upon his guard, to inherit the kingdom as next heir; for the young brother of the king, called John of Eltham, was lately dead*. King Edward believed these tales but too readily, and ordered his uncle, the earl of Kent, to be arrested and publicly beheaded, before any could come to intercede for him. The whole country were much concerned at it, and bore an ill will to the lord Mortimer ever after. Not long after, great infamy fell upon the queen mother — whether with just cause or not I am ignorant, 31 but it was commonly said, that she was with child, and in this was the lord Mortimer inculpated. The king was likewise informed, that the lord Mortimer had been the author of all the charges respecting the earl of Kent, and consequently was the author of his death, through jealousy; and that the whole country believed him loyal and honest.

The king then ordered the lord Mortimer to be arrested and brought to London, before him and a very great number of barons and nobles of the realm. A knight, by the king’s command, recited all the deeds of the lord Mortimer, from a declaration which he held in his hand. Every one was then asked, by way of counsel, what sentence should be passed. Judgment was soon given; for each had perfect knowledge of the facts, from report and good information. They replied to the king’s question, that he ought to suffer the same death as sir Hugh Spencer, which sentence had neither delay of execution or mercy. He was immediately drawn upon a hurdle through the city of London, and placed on a ladder in the midst of the market-place; when he had his private parts cut off, and cast into a fire, because he had thought and acted treasonably. His body was then quartered, and sent to the four principal cities in England; his head remained in London. The king, soon after, by the advice of his council, ordered his mother to be confined in a goodly castle, and gave her plenty of ladies to wait and attend on her, as well as knights and esquires of honour. He made her a handsome allowance to keep and maintain the state she had been used to; but forbade that she should ever go out or show herself abroad, except at certain times, when any shows were exhibited in the court of the castle. The queen thus passed her time there meekly; and the king, her son, visited her twice or thrice a year.


*  Froissart mistakes. John of Eltham lived more than six years after the death of the earl of Kent. There were, beside his elder brother, Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, living, as well as the two sisters of the king, Joan and Eleanor.

  This is not correct. — His body, after hanging for two days and two nights by the king’s special command, through his favour, was granted to the Friars Minors, or Grey Friars, in London, who buried him in their church, now called Christ Church; whence, many years afterwards, it was translated to Wigmore. — Dugdale.



AFTER king Edward had administered those great acts of justice*, he took new counsellors, the wisest and best beloved by his people. About a year after the coronation of king Philip of France, when all the barons and tenants of the crown had done him fealty and homage, except the young king, Edward, who had neither appeared, nor had even been summoned, the king of France, by the advice of his council, sent to him the lord of Ancenis, the lord of Beausault, and two clerks learned in the laws, and of the parliament of Paris, named master Peter of Orleans, and master Peter of Maisiers. These four left Paris, and travelled on to Wissan, where they embarked, passed over, and landed at Dover; there they remained one whole day, waiting for the disembarkation of their horses and baggage. They then went forwards and came to Windsor, where the king and young queen resided. They sent to inform the king of the cause of their journey; when king Edward, to do honour to his cousin the king of France, invited them to his presence, and treated them with much favour. After they had delivered their message to the king, he replied, that he had not then his council with him, but he would send for them, and they might now return to London, where such an answer would be given to them as should be sufficient. Upon hearing this, and after they had dined, to their great satisfaction, in the king’s apartment, they set out, and lay that night at Coldbrook: the next day they arrived in London.

The king did not delay long in following them, but came to his palace of Westminster, and ordered his council to assemble. They sent for the messengers from France, who, when they had told why they were come, and had given the letters sent by the king their lord, withdrew. The king having asked of his council what was to be done, it was resolved to give an answer according to the ordinances and style of his predecessors, and that the bishop of London should deliver it, which was done as follows: — “Gentlemen, who are come here by the orders of the king of France, I bid you welcome: we have heard your speech, and 32 read your letters. We inform you, that we advise the king, our lord, to pass over to France to see his cousin, who so kindly has sent to him; and, moreover, to perform his homage and loyalty, for in truth he is bounden to it by his duty. You will tell the king, your lord, that our king and master will shortly be with him, and do all that is proper and right for him to do.”

After the messengers had been well entertained, and received many rich presents and jewels from the king, they took their leave, and returned to Paris, where they found king Philip, to whom they related all that had passed. The king said, he should be very happy to receive his cousin, king Edward, whom he had never seen. When this news was spread over France, dukes, counts, and all the nobility, made great and rich preparations. The king of France sent letters to king Charles of Bohemia and the king of Navarre, to inform them of the day that the king of England was expected to appear, and to desire they would be present. Accordingly they came in very great magnificence. The king of France was advised to receive the king of England in the city of Amiens. There were great preparations made to get apartments, houses, and provision for him and his attendants, as well as for the kings of Bohemia and Navarre, who were provided for by him, and the duke of Burgundy. The dukes of Bourbon and Lorraine, and lord John of Artois, were to be there, with upwards of three thousand horse; and the king of England’s suite was to consist of six hundred horse.

The young king did not forget, in this journey to France, to equip himself becoming his rank: he set out from England, accompanied by two bishops with the bishop of London; four earls — Henry, earl of Derby, his cousin-german, son of Thomas, earl of Lancaster, his uncle, surnamed Wryneck, the earl of Salisbury, the earl of Warwick, the earl of Hereford; and six barons — lord Reginald Cobham, lord Thomas Wager, the marshal of England, lord Percy, the lord of Manny, lord Mowbray, and more than forty other nobles and knights.

There were upwards of a thousand horse attending on and provided for by the king. They were two days in passing from Dover to Wissan. Then the king and his company rode to Boulogne, where he staid one day: — it was about mid-August when the king arrived at Boulogne§.

News being soon carried to king Philip, that the king of England was at Boulogne, he directly sent his constable, and a number of knights, to meet him; — they found him at Montreuil sur Mer. After many congratulations and professions of love, the king of England rode on, accompanied by the constable, and he and all his company arrived at Amiens, where king Philip was in all pomp ready to receive him, attended by the kings of Bohemia, Majorca, and Navarre, and a number of dukes, counts, barons, and other nobles. The twelve peers of France were also present, as well to do personal honour to the king of England, as to be witnesses when he should perform his homage.

The king of England was most magnificently received, and he and his company remained there fifteen days, during which time many conferences were held and ordinances framed.

It appears to me, that king Edward at that time did homage by mouth and words, but without placing his hands in the hands of the king of France, or any prince, prelate, or deputy doing it for him. And the king of England, by the advice of his council, would not proceed further in this business, until he should be returned to England, and have examined the privileges of old times, to clear up this homage, and see by what means a king of England was a vassal to the king of France.

The king of France replied, “Cousin, we do not wish to deceive you; what you have hitherto done has been very agreeable to us, and we will wait until you shall have returned into your own country and seen, from the deeds of your predecessors, what you ought to do.”

The king of England, taking a friendly leave of the king of France, and of the other princes who were present, returned to England. He journeyed on to Windsor, where the queen received him with much pleasure. She made inquiries after king Philip her uncle, and after her other relations in France. The king, her husband, related to her all that had passed, and the particulars of his magnificent reception, and the great honours that were paid to him in France; which were such that no other country could pretend to do the like.


It was not long before the king of France sent into England the following privy councillors, the bishops of Chartres and of Beauvais, the lord Louis de Clermont, the duke de Bourbon, the count de Harcourt, the count de Tancarville, and other knights and clerks learned in the laws, to attend the conference that was to be holden at London on the subject above mentioned. The king of England had examined in what manner his predecessors had done their homage for what they held in Acquitaine, of which they were styled dukes. Many in England murmured, that their king should do homage to Philip, who had not so near a right to the crown of France as himself. Neither the king nor his council was ignorant of this; — however, a great parliament and assembly were holden on the subject of his homage. The ambassadors from the king of France remained all the winter, till the month of May following, without being able to obtain any definitive answer. At last, the king of England, in conformity to his privileges, in which he put much faith, was advised to write letters in the manner of patents, sealed with his great seal, acknowledging what sort of homage he owed, and ought to pay to the king of France, which letters were in the following terms:

“Edward, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Acquitaine, to all by whom these present letters shall be seen and heard, greeting.

“We make known, that when we paid our homage to our excellent and well-loved lord and cousin, Philip, king of France, at Amiens, it was required by him of us, that we should acknowledge such homage to be liege, and that we, in paying him such homage, should promise expressly to be faithful and true to him — which things we did not then do, as we were ignorant if they were due, and only paid him general homage in such terms, as saying, we entered into his homage in the same manner as our predecessors, the dukes of Guienne, had in former days entered into homage to the kings of France who for that time were, and being since better informed as to the truth, acknowledge by these presents, that the homage, which we paid to the king of France in the city of Amiens, by general words, was, is, and ought to be considered as liege homage, and that we owe him loyalty and truth, as duke of Acquitaine, peer of France, earl of Poitou, and Montreuil; and we promise to bear him loyalty and truth. That from henceforward no more disputes may arise, we promise for ourselves and our successors, dukes of Acquitaine, that the above-mentioned homage shall be performed in the manner following.

“The king of England, as duke of Acquitaine, shall hold his hands in the hands of the king of France; and the person who shall address his speech to the king of England as duke of Acquitaine, and who shall speak for the king of France, shall say thus: You become liegeman to the king my lord, here present, as duke of Acquitaine, and a peer of France, and you promise to bear him faith and loyalty — Say Yea: and the king of England, duke of Guienne, as well as all their successors, shall say Yea: and then the king of France shall receive the king of England, duke of Guienne, by faith and mouth, saving any other their reciprocal rights.

“Moreover, when the said king and duke shall enter upon his homage to the king of France for the earldoms of Poitou and Montreuil, he shall put his hands into the hands of the king of France for the earldoms of Poitou and Montreuil; and the person who shall speak for the king of France shall address these words to the king as earl, and say as follows: You become liegeman to the king of France, my lord, here present, as earl of Poitou and Montreuil, and you promise to be faithful and loyal to him — Say Yea: and the king, as count of Poitou and Montreuil, shall say Yea: and then the king of France shall receive the said king and earl as liegeman by faith and mouth, saving any other his right. And in this manner shall all future homages be paid. For this cause we deliver over, for us and for our successors, dukes of Guienne, after homages done, letters patent, sealed with our great seal, if the king of France shall require it; and with this we promise to keep on our faith the peace and concord most amicably between the kings of France and the above-mentioned kings of England, dukes of Guienne

These letters were carried to France by the aforesaid lords, and the king of France ordered them to be preserved in his chancery.


*  Lord Berners says “executions;” a fitter term. The death of the earl of Kent can scarcely be deemed an act of justice. The original reads — “ces deaux grans justices,” which last word is properly rendered executions.

  Dr. Stephen Gravesend, bishop of London; Dr. John Stratford, bishop of Winchester; Dr. Henry Burwash, bishop of Lincoln.

  See Rymer, anno 1329, for the names of those who passed over to France with king Edward.

§  In Rymer, there is a memorandum that the king embarked at Dover for France, at mid-day, the 26th of May, 1329.

  See the copy of the original instrument of the homage and the witnesses to it, in Rymer, anno 1329. Also another, of which this in Froissart seems a copy, signed at Eltham, March 31, 1331.