[Back] [Blueprint] [Next]


ಌ Click on the footnote number and you will jump to it, then click that footnote number and you will jump back to where you were in the text [That line will be at the top of the screen].



2189-94. Charles of Navarre had, as we have seen, already signed a treaty with Pedro, by which in return for certain concessions he had promised to open the passes through his country to the English army.1 The subsequent alliance with Henry, according to Ayala, was made at Santa Cruz de Campezo, by which King Charles undertook to prevent the passage of the troops.2

2196. Chandos and Froissart seem to be the only contemporaries who mention the capture of Miranda and Puente-la-Reina;3 but Ayala, with the authority of an eyewitness, speaks of Calverley leaving Henry directly after the latter’s treaty with Charles the Bad.4 Navarre would be a possible route of return from Burgos, and, knowing of the recent engagement, Calverley may have wished to take revenge upon the perfidious Charles, or, more probably, he merely sacked the towns in passing, after the usual custom of the Companies, whereupon the King in alarm thought the passage of troops would be less dangerous if they came as allies, and so hastened to renew his old alliance. (On 27th Sept. the Black Prince had signed a promise to forbid all pillage during the march.5)


2203. Martin Enriquez de La Carra, ‘Alfarez’ de Navarre.6 He has already appeared on the scene as councillor and delegate for the King of Navarre in September, 1366;7 and he is also mentioned in an earlier document as placed in guard of an important place on the frontier.8 He was certainly Charles’s right-hand man, and may well have taken part in these negotiations, but he probably returned to look after the business of the kingdom when Charles arrived in person, for he is not mentioned as accompanying the army on its passage.

2210. The arrival of Charles of Navarre at Saint-Jean-Pied-du-Port, and meeting with the Prince at Peyrehorade, is told by Froissart also.9 Ayala says that directly after his treaty with Henry of Trastamare the King of Navarre made a second alliance with Pedro and the Black Prince at Pampeluna, because he thought them the stronger.10 In all probability Charles was anxious, as far as possible, to keep on good terms with both parties, and all this seems quite true. As to the renewal of the treaty with Pedro, the Herald is more likely to be correct in placing it at Peyrehorade rather than Pampeluna, as it must have taken place before, not after, the passage of Roncevaux.

2242 sq. This long list of men who marched in each of the ‘battles’ appears to have been copied with a few slight variations by Froissart, who unfortunately from this time onward loses his value as an original authority; he remained at Bordeaux instead of accompanying the expedition, and there can be little doubt that this poem now becomes his chief source of information.11 He may, however, have had some first-hand knowledge as to the men taking part in the campaign.

2247. This is probably Sir Thomas d’Ufford, one of the Knights of the Garter.12 The Earl of Suffolk at this time was Robert d’Ufford.13

2249. Hugh of Hastings, probably a son of his namesake who fought in 1346 and 1360.14

2250. Sir William Beauchamp, Lord of Bergavenny, youngest son of Thomas, Earl of Warwick, according to Dugdale.15 Beltz calls him Thomas.16

2253. Probably John, Lord Neville of Raby,17 who joined the Black Prince in 1366-7. He was knighted in 1360, and is identified in the Dictionary of National Biography with the warrior mentioned by Chandos. Froissart calls him Sire de Neufville, a Breton captured at Auray, who had served Chandos after that event.18 This is curious; he cannot be the nephew of Audrehem mentioned elsewhere, who was fighting on the other side.

2261. Kervyn de Lettenhove calls him Gérard Chabot, Sire de Rais or Retz.19 Froissart adds that he also was a Breton, like Neufville.

2263. Guardia Raymond, Sire d’Aubeterre, was a famous member of the Great Company.20 There was apparently a Robert d’Aubeterre also, probably a member of the same family, unless the name is merely Froissart’s mistake.21

2265. Garsis or Garsiot du Castel, Sire du Bois.22

2267. Called by Froissart Gaillart de la Motte, and mentioned several times in Spain.23 There was a man of this name in 1347 called a natural son of Bertrand de la Motte.24

2268. Aimery de Rochechouart, Sire de Mortemert.25

2269. Robert Camyn: not mentioned by the other authorities in this connection.


2270. John Creswell (mentioned earlier, see note to 1989.)

Robert Briquet.26

2271. Sir Richard Taunton. Given in Froissart’s list.

2272. William de Felton, a relative of Sir Thomas. Froissart places him, together with Sir Thomas, in the Prince’s detachment, instead of with Lancaster, as does Chandos.27

2273. Evidently identical with the Wm. le Botiller, or Boteller, member of the Grand Company, summoned to do homage to Charles of Navarre (together with Briquet, Creswell, Cosinton and d’Aubréchicourt) when passing through his territories April 1366.28 There was a Wm. Boteler of Oversly, alive at this time;29 Dugdale makes no mention of his share in the Spanish war, but if just possible that these two are identical.

2274. Froissart calls him Penneriel; but there were plenty of Peverells in the French Wars, mentioned in the French and Gascon Rolls.

2275. John Sandes: not found elsewhere.

2276. John Alein. He and Sandes may have been personal friends of the Herald, who was in the same detachment (see Index).

2277. Hawley and Shakell captured the Count of Denia at the battle of Nájera.30

2283. Stephen de Cosinton is constantly mentioned in all records. He received letters of protection at this time.31

2285. Guichard d’Angle had joined Edward after the Peace of Brétigny, and was made Marshal to the Black Prince in Gascony.32

2294-5. There is a slight error here, for Feb. 14th that year fell on a Sunday, and it is probably the 15th that is meant. 33

2312-14. Froissart also says that the Prince and Don Pedro set out on Tuesday the 15th (which would be 16th), the rear-guard on Wednesday. Buchon, in his notes, suggests the 20th instead of the 15th for the departure of the forces, but without stating his reasons.34 In favour of the 20th it may be said that there is a document dated Bayonne, Feb. 20th, and signed by Don Pedro;35 but, on the other hand, there is a letter addressed to the inhabitants of the Murcia which purports to have been written by Don Pedro from Pampeluna, Feb. 19th.36 As the 20th that year was a Saturday and not a Monday, and as the document of that date might possibly have been sent after the King for his signature, and as it was witnessed by only five officials (Spanish) instead of by the numerous knights whose names appear upon the Treaty of 23rd Sept. (e.g. the Duke of Lancaster, Chandos, Neville, &c.), it seems as though the weight of evidence were in favour of the earlier date.

2321. Louis d’Harcourt, Vicomte de Châtellerault.37

2323. Sir Thomas Felton, Seneschal of Aquitaine.

2324. Guillaume l’Archevêque, Sire de Parthenay.38

2325. Jean, Helie and Amanieu de Pommiers, brothers of the Seigneur Guillaume Sans, placed by Froissart in the rear-guard, which seems more probable, since the majority of the Gascons were there.39

2327. Olivier de Clisson, who had joined Lancaster in Brittany.

2328. Petiton de Curton (see pp. 189, 194).

2329. There was a Roger de la Warre, mentioned several times in the Gascon Rolls.40



1  Rymer, iii, pt. 2, p. 116.

2  Ayala, 435.

3   Froissart, vii. 3.

4  Ayala, 437.

5  Brutails, Documents des Archives de Navarre (Bibl. de lÉcole des Hautes-Études, 1894), 155.

6  Yanguas y Miranda, Diccionario de Antigüedades del reino de Navarra. Pampeluna, 1840-43, iii. 89.

7  Rymer, iii, pt. ii, p. 117.

8  Brutails, 155.

9  Froissart, vii. 4.

10  Ayala, 435.

11  Froissart, vii, p. iii, note 1.

12  Beltz, 127.

13  Beltz, 95.

14  Froissart, Kervyn de Lettenhove (Index), xxi. 528.

15  Dugdale, i. 328.

16  Beltz, 227.

17  Beltz, 166. He was certainly going abroad in 1366 (Gascon Rolls, 40 Ed. III, m. 4).

18  Froissart, vii. 7. Hay du Châtelet, Vie de du Guesclin, Paris, 1666, p. 134.

19  Froissart, Kervyn de Lettenhove (Index), xxiii. 15.

20  Froissart, vi, p. lxxxi, note 3.

21  Froissart, vi, p. xciv, note 1.

22  Anselme, viii, 357.

23  Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, vii. 154, 172, 212.

24  Arch. Nat., JJ 76, fol. 145.

25  Sceaux de Clairambault, ii, nos. 7795, 6, 8.

26  Both did homage to Navarre, April, 1366. Brutails, 151.

27  Froissart, vii. 8.

28   Brutails, 151.

29  Dugdale, i. 595.

30  Rymer, iii, pt. ii, p. 133.

31  Gascon Rolls, 41 Ed. III, m. 3.

32  Beltz, 182.

33  Froissart, vii, p. v, note 2.

34  Froissart (Panthéon Littéraire), i. 525 note.

35  Cotton MSS. Vespasian C xii, fol. 95; Rymer, iii, pt. ii, p. 131.

36  Cascales, Discursos Históricos, fol. 116 dorso.

37  Sceaux de Clairambault, ii, No. 4493.

38  Anselme, i. 434.

39  Froissart, vii. 9.

40  Gascon Rolls, 30 Ed. III, m. 4; 40 Ed. III, m. 14; 42 Ed. III, m. 6.


[Back] [Blueprint] [Next]
Valid CSS!