The standard work on mediaeval universities is Hastings Rashdall, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1895; new edition in preparation), to which my indebtedness will be apparent throughout. The later literature can be most easily found in L. J. Paetow, Guide to the Study of Mediaeval History (Berkeley, 1917). Important materials are conveniently accessible in translation in D. C. Munro, The Mediaeval Student (Philadelphia, 1895); and A. O. Norton, Readings in the History of Education: Mediaeval Universities (Cambridge, Mass., 1909). Bologna now has a cartulary and a special series of Studî e Memorie (both since 1907); while the municipal history of the early period has been studied by A. Hessel, Geschichte der Stadt Bologna von 1116 bis 1280 (Berlin, 1910). Light has recently been thrown on Salerno by the studies of Giacosa and Sudhoff and the dissertations of Sudhoff’s pupils; its most popular product, The School of Salernum, can be read 128in the quaint English version of Sir John Harrington, recently reprinted (London, 1922) with a good note by F. H. Garrison and a less valuable preface by Francis R. Packard. Paris still lacks a modern historian; Mullinger is still the standard work on Cambridge; while Oxford can best be studied in Rashdall, supplemented, as in the case of Cambridge, by the histories of the several colleges.
The most useful general work on the content of mediaeval learning is Henry Osborn Taylor, The Mediaeval Mind (third edition, New York, 1919). This may be supplemented by R. L. Poole, Illustrations of the History of Mediaeval Thought and Learning (second edition, London, 1920); M. Grabmann, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode (Freiburg, 1909-1911); Sir J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, I (third edition, Cambridge 1921); Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science (New York, 1923); Pierre Duhem, Le système du monde de Platon à Copernic, II-V (Paris, 1914-17); Charles H. Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science (in press, Harvard University Press); the standard histories of philosophy, mathematics, law, 129and medicine; and the more special literature in Paetow’s Guide, including his own study of the Arts Course (Urbana, 1910); and his edition of the Battle of the Seven Arts (Berkeley, 1914). For a sample of Abelard’s Sic et Non, see Norton, Readings, pp. 20-25. Abelard’s method can be followed further in the logical writings edited for the first time by B. Geyer in BaeumkerÙs Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittalters, XXI (Münster, 1919 ff.). The best account of the class-rooms of a mediaeval university is F. Cavazza, Le scuole dell’ antico studio bolognese (Milan, 1896). Robert de Sorbon’s De conscientia is edited by Chambon (Paris, 1903).
Brief sketches of student life will be found in the last chapter of Rashdall and in the little volume of R. S. Rait, Life in the Mediaeval University (Cambridge, 1912). In the text I have drawn freely from an article of my own on student letters (American Historical Review, III, pp. 203-229) and from one on the Paris sermons (ib., X, pp. 1-27). John of Garlande’s Dictionary will be found most conveniently in T. Wright, A Volume of Vocabularies (London, 1882), pp. 120-138; he also 130wrote a Morale Scolarium of which Paetow is preparing an edition. The Manuale Scholarium has been translated and annotated by R. F. Seybolt (Harvard University Press, 1921). Statuta vel Precepta Scolarium have been edited by M. Weingart (Metten, 1894) and by P. Bahlmann in Milleilungen der Gesellschaft für deutsche Erziehungs- und Schulgeschichte, III, pp. 129-145 (1893). The latest discussion of mediaeval manuals of manners is by S. Glixelli, in Romania, XLVII, pp. 1-40 (1921). The best single collection of Goliardic verse is J. A. Schmeller, Carmina Burana (Breslau, 1894); the best translations are those of J. A. Symonds, Wine, Women, and Song. Two poets have since been individualized, the Primate by Léopold Delisle and W. Meyer, the Archpoet by B. Schmeidler and M. Manitius. For an introduction to the vast literature of Goliardic poetry, see Paetow’s Guide, pp. 449 f.; P. S. Allen, in Modern Philology, V, VI; and H. Süssmilch, Lateinische Vagantenpoesie (Leipzig, 1917). On the origin of the word ‘Goliardi,’ see James Westfall Thompson, in the Studies in Philology, published by the University of North Carolina, XX, pp. 83-98 (1923).